COLOMBIA, CORREDOR MIGRATORIO. Por: Paola Holguín.

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La migración es un fenómeno mundial que siempre ha existido; ha sido uno de los factores determinantes en las transformaciones demográficas a lo largo de la historia, y continuará siéndolo, asociado a los constantes cambios en los ámbitos económico, social, y político, en un mundo cada vez más integrado por los avances tecnológicos.

De acuerdo con el Informe Sobre Migraciones en el Mundo (2020), de la Organización Internacional de Migraciones, se estima que en el planeta hay aproximadamente 272 millones de migrantes internacionales (3,5% de la población mundial), dos tercios de los cuales son migrantes laborales; la cifra, por sí sola impresionante, supera por mucho lo proyectado para 2050, año en el que se esperaba que fueran 230 millones, esto es, el 2.5% de la población del globo. Los Estados Unidos de América, destaca el Informe, continúa siendo el principal destino, con 50,7 millones de migrantes internacionales; precisamente, el flujo constante de extranjeros hacia dicho país ha puesto al municipio de Necoclí, en los titulares de las noticias más recientes.

Este municipio, ubicado en el noroccidente de Antioquia, al margen oriental del golfo de Urabá, en los últimos días se ha visto desbordado por el represamiento de migrantes que buscan cruzar la frontera panameña, actualmente cerrada por disposición del vecino Gobierno. La situación llevó a su Alcalde a declarar la calamidad pública, tras el colapso de la red hospitalaria y de servicios públicos; por unos 10.000 extranjeros varados allí -una quinta parte de los cuales son menores de edad-.

El pasado 30 de julio, nos desplazamos al Municipio con el Presidente del Congreso y los Representantes Espinal y Echeverry, para entender de primera mano la dimensión del problema. Allí encontramos dos realidades paralelas, por un lado, la crisis humanitaria de los migrantes y por otro, la red criminal de trata de personas. Lo cierto es que, por su ubicación y el incontenible flujo hacia Norteamérica, esta región del país continuará siendo un habitual corredor migratorio, y probablemente cada vez mayor, por fenómenos tan disimiles y complejos como la inestabilidad política, el deterioro de la seguridad interna y económica de países que, como Chile, empiezan a endurecer su política migratoria.

Hoy, la mayoría de migrantes que se encuentran en Necoclí son haitianos, y esto obedece principalmente a dos razones, la entrada en vigor en el mes de abril de la nueva ley de migraciones chilena y el anuncio del Gobierno de Estados Unidos del Estatus de Protección Temporal de Haití. Adicionalmente, hay una decena de nacionalidades más, provenientes de Nigeria, Gambia, Angola, Senegal, Camerún, Ghana, Guinea, Malí, Congo, Irán, Afganistán, Bangladesh, Brasil, Venezuela, Cuba, entre otros.

El Gobierno viene adelantando reuniones con varios países de la región, sancionó las leyes migratoria y de fronteras, y tomó una serie de medidas para tratar de restablecer el flujo normal y legal de las personas atascadas en Necoclí; pero es necesario un trabajo interinstitucional y multilateral que permita atender de fondo la situación de los migrantes que van de tránsito por nuestros países hasta Norteamérica, para hacer más ordenado este camino, y más eficaz la lucha contra la trata de personas y el tráfico ilegal de migrantes.

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